Автор: Ladislav Dzurenda
- COMPUTATION OF THE AVERAGE WOOD TEMPERATURE AND THE RATE OF ITS CHANGE DURING UNILATERAL HEATING OF FLAT SPRUCE DETAILS BEFORE THEIR BENDING
An approach for the computation of the average mass temperature of the wood and the rate of its change during unilateral heating of flat wood details aimed at their plasticizing in the production of curved outside parts for corpses of stringed music instruments, has been suggested. The approach is based on the numerical integration of the solutions of a linear model for the calculation of the non-stationary 1D temperature distribution along the thickness of subjected to unilateral heating flat wood details.
Ключови думи: average mass temperature, rate of change in average temperature, spruce details, unilateral heating, plasticizing
- INFLUENCE OF THE TEMPERATURE COMBUSTION OF FUEL-WOOD TO CONTENT ASH
In this contribution, there are presented the results of experiments determining the influence of combustion temperature of fuel-wood on the production of ash. They confirm current knowledge about the low production of ash from wood, and specify the functional dependences between the influence of temperature at intervals of t = 500°C – 1000 °C on the production of ash from the wood of tree species: Norway spruce, White birch, European beech, English oak and Black locust.
The functional dependences of ash production on the combustion temperatures are instrumental for objectification of information about ash production from energy facilitiesfor energy, environmental, and ecological analyses and balances.
The proportion of ash from fuel-wood can be done according to standard ISO 1171:2003, or standard EN14775:2010. These standards differ in the temperature of combustion of the fuel wood sample. ISO 1171:2003 burns fuel at t = 815 °C while EN14775:2010 at t = 550 °C. Disregarding the aforementioned facts about the dependence of production of ash on the combustion temperature causes errors. By interchanging the norms ISO1171:2003 with EN14775:2010, the balances from combustion of spruce wood generate a relative error of 44.58%. The balances from combustion of wood of black locust generate a relative error of 19.10%.
Ключови думи: fuel, wood, combustion, temperature, ash
- COMPUTATION OF THE ENERGY CONSUMPTION FOR WARMING UP OF FLAT OAK DETAILS BEFORE THEIR BENDING
A software program has been prepared in the calculation environment of Visual Fortran for solving of own 1D non-linear model of the one sided heating process of flat wood details. With the help of the program, the 1D non-stationary temperature field in flat oak details with initial temperature of 20 oC, moisture content of 0.15 kg.kg-1, thickness of 12 mm, 16 mm, and 20 mm during their 30 min one sided heating at temperature of 80 oC of the heating metal body has been calculated. After integration of the temperature field, the energy consumption for warming up of the details before their bending in the production of curved back parts of chairs has been calculated. The obtained results are graphically presented and analyzed.
Ключови думи: oak details, one sided heating, bending, energy consumption
- WOOD COLOUR MODIFICATION OF FRAXINUS EXCELSIOR L. DURING THE PROCESS OF THERMAL TREATMENT WITH SATURATED WATER STEAM
The aim of the paper is to determine the colour of European ash wood (Fraxinus excelsiorL.) in the CIE-L*a*b* colour space during the thermal treatment with saturated water steam at the temperature of t = 137.5 ± 2.5 °C for the time of τ = 7.5 hours. The colour of European ash wood changes from white with a yellow hue to brown during the process of colour modification. Mentioned hue of thermally modified wood is described with the coordinates of CIE-L*a*b*colour space: L* 65.6 ± 1.4; a* = 10.8 ± 0.5; b* = 21.7 ± 0.9. Irreversible colour change of the European ash wood resulting from the process of thermal modification with saturated water steam widen the possibility for its use in the field of construction and carpentry, design as well as in the field of art.
Ключови думи: wood, European ash (Fraxinus excelsiorL.), the CIE-L*a*b*colour space, thermaltreatment, saturated water steam
- COMPUTATION OF THE AVERAGE MASS THERMAL CONDUCTIVITY OF OAK FURNITURE ELEMENTS SUBJECTED TO CONVECTIVE HEATING BEFORE LACQUERING
A methodology for the computation and research of the following two mutually connected problems has been suggested: 1D non-stationary temperature distribution in subjected to unilateral convective heating process of flat wooden furniture elements before lacquering and change in their average mass thermal conductivity. For the realization of the methodology, created earlier by the authors 1-dimensional nonlinear mathematical model has been solved for the transient heat conduction in the furniture elements during their unilateral convective heating. The model contains a mathematical description of the average mass thermal conductivity of the elements and their surface layer, which is intended for lacquering. For the numerical solution of the model with the aim of applying the methodology a software program has been prepared and input in the calculation environment of Visual FORTRAN Professional. Using the program, computations have been carried out for determination of the 1-dimensional non-stationary temperature distribution along the elements’ thickness and of the average mass thermal conductivity for flat oak furniture elements with an initial temperature of 20 oC, moisture content of 8 %, thickness of 16 mm, width of 0.6 m, and length of 1.2 m during their 10 min unilateral convective heating at temperature of the processing air medium of 100 oC, which circulates above the elements with a velocity of 2 m·s-1, 5 m·s-1, and 8 m·s-1 aimed at improvement of the conditions for the subsequent lacquering. During the computations a temperature of 20 oC for the surrounding air near the non-heated surface of the carrying rubber band has been used. The change in the average mass thermal conductivity of the studied furniture oak elements and also of their heated surface layers during the heating is graphically presented and analyzed.
Because of the wide range of applications, the need for paulownia is constantly increasing.
Ключови думи: oak furniture elements, one sided convective heating, lacquering, thermal conductivity
- INFLUENCE OF UV RADIATION ON COLOR STABILITY OF NATURAL AND THERMALLY TREATED MAPLE WOOD WITH SATURATED WATER STEAM
The aim of this paper is to present the results of color change on the surface of natural maple wood and thermally treated maple wood with saturated water steam after UV irradiation in Xenotest 450 – simulation of natural wood aging process. Thermally untreated maple wood is white to light white-gray-yellow in color with coordinates L* = 86.6 ± 2.5; a* = 5.3 ± 1.7; b* = 19.3 ± 2.3 in CIE L*a*b* color space. The thermally treated maple wood is brown-red in color with coordinates L* = 65.3 ± 1.4; a* = 10.8 ± 1.3; b* = 19.3 ± 1.3. The surface of samples maple wood with moisture content w = 12% was irradiated in Xenotest 450 with a xenon lamp with UV radiation of 340 nm. Irradiation of the wood surface took place in the exposure cycle A1 for 7 days. While the irradiated surface of the thermally untreated maple wood darkened and acquired a brownish-yellow hue, the brownish-red hue of the thermally treated maple wood turned paled slightly. The total color difference ∆E* caused by UV radiation of thermally untreated maple wood is ∆E* = 15.2 and thermally treated maple wood is ∆E* = 10.8. A comparison of the simulated aging of thermally treated and thermally untreated maple wood in Xenotest 450 suggests that the overall color change of thermally treated wood is 28.9 % less.
Ключови думи: mountain maple, CIE L* a* b* color space, UV radiation, wood color aging simulation