Автор: Petar Antov
- STRATEGIC PERSPECTIVES OF BULGARIAN PLYWOOD PRODUCTION AND TRADE
Plywood manufacturing is one of the most important production lines and value adding alternatives in woodworking industry. Plywood production volumes have increased rapidly in the last few years all over the world and especially in Asian countries. In this new environment the European manufacturers face a great competition. In these market conditions the manufacturing companies can either do better, extracting the best they can and providing much greater quality, or go down to slow and painful market dropout. Bulgaria is on the crossroad- to improve its plywood production in terms of investments and quality, or let its manufacturers in stagnation, waiting until their doors get closed. All these facts define strategic analyses that can outline the future improvement of Bulgarian plywood production as a question of present interest for the woodworking industry.
Ключови думи: plywood, Bulgaria, strategies, analyses, matrices
- FORMAL-ANALYTICAL DESCRIPTION OF WOOD FOR THE PURPOSES OF THE CLASSIFICATION OF WOOD SPECIES. PART 1: QUANTITATIVE LEVELS
Wood is a product of woody plants, formed by a complex of tissues - conductive, mechanical, reserve and secretory. However, it is not just a mechanical mixture of chemical compounds, but a complex biological and physico-chemical system composed of polymers, monomers, made up of cell walls and cell cavities (lumens). The knowledge of its structure allows the tree species to be determined, the conditions under which it is formed, as well as its behavior under different loads.
The paper examines the variation of the quantitative indicators of individual tissues and the possibility of using it to classify individual species.
Ключови думи: structure, levels, vessels, wood rays, fibers, parenchyma
- THE FORMAL-ANALYTICAL DESCRIPTION OF WOOD FOR THE PURPOSES OF THE CLASSIFICATION OF WOOD SPECIES. PART 2. WOOD FORMULAS
The structure of wood can be examined at several qualitatively different levels of consideration (macro, meso, micro and nano). Each of these levels can be considered as a separate, single and relatively independent subsystem in the wood structure. They are determined by the characteristics of the species, the ecology of the global, regional and local habitats. Each of these levels requires a separate, more precise and comprehensive classification. If the quantities and distribution of the main tissues are known, the tree species can be grouped in groups of construction and conclusions can be made about its physical and mechanical properties.
This work examines the possibility for a more in-depth formal-analytical description of the individual tree species and a theoretical representation of wood structure that more adequately reflects its characteristic features.
Ключови думи: wood, structure, levels, vessels, core rays, fibers, parenchyma, wood formulas
- POSSIBILITIES FOR UTILIZATION OF WASTE WATER AND RESIDUAL WOOD FIBRES IN THE PRODUCTION OF HARDBOARDS
Despite the continuous introduction of new materials and technologies in the production of wood-based composites, hardboards (HB), remain in the range of wood products, due to their good consumer and exploitation properties. The production of these products is characterized by the intensive consumption of raw materials. In the wet production process, much of the raw material used is taken up by water involved in the formation of the wood-fibre mat. It forms a significant share in the value of the finished product, resulting in a smaller added value. At present, the utilization of wastewater from the production of the HB is unsatisfactory. Its high fibre content creates sludges that can be recycled or thermally utilized. The present study is aimed at reviewing the possible methods of utilizing the wastewater and fibre sludge in it. This will provide the Bulgarian producers with a means of enhancing production efficiency and applying the circular economy principles.
Ключови думи: utilization, wastewater, wood fibres, circular economy
- ANALYSIS OF ANATOMICAL ELEMENTS AS WOOD TEXTURE CHARACTERISTICS
In recent years, more and more systems for computer recognition of tree species are entering, which show good results in solving a certain group of problems. Some of them have already proven themselves in solving such tasks as quality control of wood materials. Studies also show that the classifications of tree species used so far do not allow to solve more general problems of structural wood science. The approaches, methods and means used in computer recognition for modeling the structure of the wood presuppose such a classification of the tree species, which should be based on a more general view on the structure of the wood in comparison with the methods used so far. This would allow to study and describe in a single formalized classification scheme all the anatomical elements that are observed with the corresponding increase in the samples of tree species. In addition, it is necessary to specify the term "texture", applicable in the computer structural anatomy of wood for the purposes of using the methods of computer vision.
The paper discusses the initial results of research related to the application of the requirements of computer modeling in solving some problems of wood anatomy. In particular, recommendations have been made for the quantitative characteristics of the study region in the wood samples and for the description of the anatomical elements making up the wood that will fall into this region and can be examined with sufficient accuracy.
Ключови думи: identification of wood, wood texture, vessels, core rays, annual rings
- PROPERTIES OF HIGH-DENSITY FIBERBOARDS BONDED WITH UREA-FORMALDEHYDE AND PHENOL-FORMALDEHYDE RESINS
Urea-formaldehyde (UF) resins are the most common type of resins used in the production of wood-based panels. Despite their numerous advantages, the main drawbacks of these thermosetting aminoplastic resins are the deteriorated water resistance, emission of hazardous volatice organic compounds, and to a lesser extent, the reduced strength. Hence, for producing wood-based panels with increased quality, a modification or partial replacement of UF resins should be performed. There are many previous studies on the improvement of UF resins with melamine-formaldehyde (MF) resins. The partial replacement of UF resins with phenol-formaldehyde (PF) resins has been studied to a lesser extent.
The aim of this research work was to investigate the effects of replacing the UF resin with PF resins on the properties of high-density fiberboards (HDF). The panels were produced at a press factor of 15 s.mm-1 and a pressing temperature of 220 °C. The resin content in fiberboards was 6%, based on the dry weight of fibres. A complete replacement of UF with PF resin was performed with an increment of 1%. It was found that at 50% content of PF resin in the adhesive system, the panels meet the strictest requirements for load-bearing applications and use in humid conditions. For achieving further improvement of fiberboard properties, the PF resin content should be increased to 83.3%.
Ключови думи: wood-based panels; high-density fiberboards; adhesive system; urea-formaldehyde resin; phenol-formaldehyde resin