Съдържание


INNO 2/2017 2017

CULTIVATED SUSTAINABLE PRODUCT AND SPATIAL DESIGN

Автори: Ivanka Dobreva-Dragostinova

Резюме

Wood is one of the most widely spread building and manufacturing materials, which has been used from antiquity till nowadays. There are many examples for the application of timber in contemporary design, however, some of the most attractive ones are those related to the development of sustainable design. Growing product and spatial design by modelling construction and shape during plant growth is a method experimented in for a long time. In contemporary design these explorations are motivated and justified not by the desire to rule over nature, but by the ambition to take care for it and use resources in a sustainable manner.

Ключови думи: sustainable design, cultivated design, eco-friendly design, growing design

EN Version

METHOD OF CONTRAST IN DESIGNING OF INTERIOR UNITS

Автори: Kremena Markova, Tihomir Dovramadjiev

Резюме

Contrast is a basic method in compositional shape forming. Its invariants, such as the materialistic contrast (between organic and synthetic), contextual contrast, dimensional, plastic, sensory contrast, etc., make the creation of a valuable designer and cultural product possible. The paper presents samples of classic designer furniture and modern innovations to prove the thesis that the method of contrast has the power to bond the physical features of a product to the emotional contact between it and its user, and thereby to unveil successfully the product properties.

Ключови думи: design, form, contrast, interior, furniture

EN Version

SCREW WITHDRAWAL RESISTANCE OF WOOD-BASED COMPOSITE PANELS (PART I)

Автори: Violeta Jakimovska Popovska, Borche Iliev, Julija Mihajlova

Резюме

This research includes the screw withdrawal resistance of wood-based composite panels for use in the construction.

Three experimental wood-based composite panels were prepared by combining particleboards and peeled beech, black pine and poplar veneers with thickness of 3.2 mm. The core layer of the wood-based composite panels was made of single-layer particleboard with the thickness of 16 mm, which was overlaid on both sides with the veneers.

Water-soluble phenol-formaldehyde resin was used for particle bonding and veneering. The screw withdrawal tests were performed according to the principles of the standard MKS D.C8.112/82. The screw withdrawal resistance was tested in two directions: perpendicular to the plane of the panel, and in plain of the panel.

The results from the research showed that the different veneer species used for particleboard overlay significantly affected the screw withdrawal resistance perpendicular to the plain of the wood-based composite panels.

According to the obtained the screw withdrawal resistance values, wood-based composite panels tested in this study could be recommended for utilizing in the construction of wooden structures.

Ключови думи: Composite wood-based panels, particleboard, veneer, beech, black pine, poplar, phenol formaldehyde resin, screw withdrawal resistance

EN Version

INVESTIGATION OF SOME PROPERTIES OF WOOD-POLYMER MATERIAL BASED ON MODIFIED UREA-FORMALDEHYDE RESIN

Автори: Miglena Valyova, Yordanka Ivanova, Ivan Genov

Резюме

Wood processing is related to the release of large amounts of waste, such as wood dust, sawdust and others. In order to their utilization perspective direction is the wood-polymer materials production, which can be applied in many industries.

In the present study some physical and mechanical properties of wood-polymer material based on modified urea-formaldehyde resin with chlorine-containing polymers were investigated. The obtained results showed that the increase of chlorinated paraffin content leads to an improvement in all investigated physical and mechanical properties.

Ключови думи: wood-polymer material, urea-formaldehyde resin, chlorine-containing polymers

EN Version

TECHNOLOGICAL RESEARCH OF MECHANIZED SITE PREPARATION FOR AFFORESTATION OF FOREST LANDS

Автори: Konstantin Marinov, Velika Yordanova

Резюме

The establishment of forest plantations on rocky and eroded soils and slopes requires adequate soil preparation. Depending on the peculiarities of the terrain, requirements of the culture for afforestation, and according to the available technical means and organization of the work, different technological schemes can be applied for soil preparation. In this paper is conducted a study over the work of bulldozer and scarifying units for soil preparation of forest land for afforestation. Time study based on video records of all the operational processes for a working day was performed. These operational processes include aligning and clearing areas for afforestation, terracing slopes and primary tillage. Basic operational and economic indicators of the studied machines in certain operating conditions were established. Operational productivity, fuel consumption and the average cost per hectare of soil preparation with bulldozer, and uprooter, and ripping aggregate were finding. The average price per one hectare cleaning operation from shrubs with simultaneous alignment of the terrain, with frontal bulldozer DZ-27 and crawler T-170, with operational productivity 0.183 ha/hour, was defined on 332.9 €/ha. The average price per one hectare primary deep soil tillage by ripper D – 513 and crawler T–170, with operational productivity 0,076 ha/hour, was defined on 839,7 €/ha. The average price per one hectare machine terraces on terrains up to 28 °, constructed by universal bulldozer DZ-38 and crawler T–170 with operational productivity 0.064 ha/hour, was defined on 966.7 €/ha. It was performed an evaluation of the researched technological schemes. The results can serve for regulation of labor and fuel costs for the studied aggregates for soil preparation for afforestation of forest land.

Ключови думи: bulldozers, rippers, operating indicators, performance

EN Version

ANALYSIS OF ENERGETIC INDICATORS OF FORESTRY MILLING MACHINES FOR SITE PREPARATION

Автори: Konstantin Marinov, Velika Yordanova

Резюме

In this paper is performed experimental study to determine energy intensity of self-propelled milling unit PT-400 equipped with multifunctional forestry tiller FAE 300/S-225 for site preparation, for poplar plantation establishment. For the purpose of the study the following processes are investigated: grinding stumps and roots, mulching shrubs and slash, and primary tilling. The study is conducted in riparian and partially flooded areas along the Danube River. As a result of the survey are established the fuel consumption and the operational productivity of the forestry unit under certain working conditions and predefined variable modes of operation of the unit. For all the operations are found the energy intensity and the relative fuel consumption per unit area. With the obtained data are built functional graphical relationships, expressing the energy intensity of the milling unit depending on the speed modes and working conditions. As a final result are determined the optimal operational modes for the tilling aggregate where energy cost for land preparation for the establishment of poplar plantations is minimal.

Ключови думи: poplar clearings, mulching, milling, energy intensity

EN Version

THE EFFECT OF PRESS TEMPERATURE ON SOME MECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF WOOD BASED COMPOSITE PANELS

Автори: Mustafa Kucuktuvek

Резюме

This research investigated the effect of press temperature on some mechanical properties of wood based composite panels. For this purpose, three layers wood based composite panels were produced from a mixture of scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) and black pine wood (Pinus nigra V.) particles at certain ratios utilizing urea formaldehyde (UF) adhesive. All panels were tested for mechanical properties; modulus of rupture, modulus of elasticity, internal bond strength. The results have shown that press temperature were affected on the mechanical properties of the manufactured wood based composite panels. When the press temperature was increased the mechanical properties were also increased. However high press temperature may destroy the natural color of composite panel and increase manufacture cost. The manufactured composite panels may use as industrial design engineering material such as furniture, sliding doors, pool tables, floor underlayment, cupboards, home constructions, wall linings, cabinets and stair treads.

Ключови думи: interior architecture, industrial materials, composite panel, press temperature

EN Version

STRATEGIC PERSPECTIVES OF BULGARIAN PLYWOOD PRODUCTION AND TRADE

Автори: Nikolay Neykov, Petar Antov, Veselin Brezin

Резюме

Plywood manufacturing is one of the most important production lines and value adding alternatives in woodworking industry. Plywood production volumes have increased rapidly in the last few years all over the world and especially in Asian countries. In this new environment the European manufacturers face a great competition. In these market conditions the manufacturing companies can either do better, extracting the best they can and providing much greater quality, or go down to slow and painful market dropout. Bulgaria is on the crossroad- to improve its plywood production in terms of investments and quality, or let its manufacturers in stagnation, waiting until their doors get closed. All these facts define strategic analyses that can outline the future improvement of Bulgarian plywood production as a question of present interest for the woodworking industry.

Ключови думи: plywood, Bulgaria, strategies, analyses, matrices

EN Version

STUDY ON POSSIBILITY FOR THE UTILIZATION OF TECHNICAL, HYDROLYSIS, LIGNIN IN COMPOSITION OF MEDIUM DENSITY FIBERBOARD

Автори: Nikola Yotov, Viktor Savov, Stoyko Petrin, Ivo Valchev, Viktor Karatotev

Резюме

In the present report is presented a study on the possibility for utilization of hydrolysis lignin in the composition of Medium Density Fiberboard. For the purpose of the study in laboratory conditions were produced boards with five percentages technical lignin in their composition and different quantity of phenol-formaldehyde resin. The main physical and mechanical properties of boards were determined, and they have been compared with those of boards without technical lignin. It is compared the visual appearance of MDF with and without technical lignin. On that base was accomplished an analysis of the results with proper conclusions.  

Ключови думи: Medium Density Fiberboard, technical, hydrolysis, lignin, Phenol-formaldehyde resin

EN Version